briefs, and presentations focus primarily on the above subjects and only secondarily, or
not at all, on Data Warehousing, Data Mining, or OLAP considerations. In instances where
this distinction is not so clear, an abstract may appear both here, and on the Data
Warehousing, Data Mining, and OLAP Papers page. The following white papers, working
papers, briefs, and presentations on Distributed Knowledge Management Systems (DKMS) and
Knowledge Management (KM) are available.
For more information about EIS Papers product see the abstracts below and here.
DKMS Brief and Presentations Released
Executive Information Systems
has released one new DKMS brief, one KMCI Research Center Working Paper, one response to a
comment on Knowledgeboard.com and five new presentations, in addition to the two Professional
Papers. They are:
Corporate Epistemology: Competing
Philosophies of Truth in Business and How They Influence Knowledge Management (Co-authored
with Mark W. McElroy) (November 3, 2003)
Response to Denham Grey's
posting on "Truth and Knowledge" and Knowledgeboard.com (Co-authored with Mark
W. McElroy) (September 26, 2003)
Eliminating Medical Errors.
(Co-authored with Mark A. Notturno, Mark W. McElroy, and Arthur J. Murray). (Worling
Paper No. Four, June 14, 2003).
Road to Knowledge Management Through Data Warehousing. (DKMS Brief No.
Eleven, May 22, 2003).
Management: Three Stages or Two Generations? (September 17, 2002).
Is Knowledge Management IT?
(October, 22, 2002).
Picking Portal Players for
Knowledge Management (October 30, 2002).
Portal Progress and Enterprise
Content Management (January 9, 2003).
All are abstracted below.
Eliminating Medical Errors. (Co-authored with
Mark A. Notturno, Mark W. McElroy, and Arthur J. Murray). (Worling Paper No.
Four, June 14, 2003). The problem of medical errors, one of the most serious national
problems in terms of social costs, can be addressed using a combined
educational/Policy/Program/Communty of Inquiry/Medical Knowledge Portal approach to
attitudinal and behavioral change focused on error elimination. The educational component
proposed is a workshop program designed to train medical personnel in Popper's
problem-solving approach focused on error elimination. The environmental component
proposes the shift towards Open Enterprises and Communities of Inquiry, along with
open and inclusive learning and innovation policies, supporting
programs, and an IT infrastructure for supporting them called a Medical Knowledge Portal
(MKP). An MKP is a type of Enterprise Knowledge Portal (EKP) that provides a virtual space
for knowledge production through critical analysis and error elimination.
Road to Knowledge Management Through Data Warehousing. (DKMS Brief No.
Eleven, May 22, 2003). How does one come to Knowledge Managenent from other fields? What
is the logic that drives the growth of interest in this new field? Of course, the answers
to these questions and the journey undertaken will vary somewhat for each individual
making the transition to this very exciting focus. This brief describes the steps,
considerations, and incentives that led Joe Firestone to transition from a primary focus
on Data Warehousing to one on Knowledge Management.
Management: Three Stages or Two Generations? (September 17, 2002). Contrasts
one three-stage theory of evolution in KM, with the two generations view of The New
Knowledge Management. It explores the basics of The New KM, the new problems generated by
that point of view.
Is Knowledge Management IT?
(October, 22, 2002). Develops a conceptual view of Knowledge Management and uses it to
address and answer the question of how KM is related to IT. In the course of describing
this relationship the presentation also addresses the question of whether EIPs are KMs
Picking Portal Players for
Knowledge Management (October 30, 2002). A brief presentation using basic
concepts of TNKM and the idea of the Enterprise Knowledge Portal to select the most
important portal vendors from the point of view of support for KM.
Portal Progress and Enterprise
Content Management (January 9, 2003). Develops the idea of Enterprise Content
Management and analyzes the relationship between portal progess and recent developments in
Knowledge Management Systems (DKMS): The Next Wave in DSS (White Paper No.
Six, August 23, 1997). The future of software application development will involve
familiar activities and components. But these will be encompassed in a broader
"adaptive component architecture" and in a more encompassing application. This
"unifying template," the DKMS, will not be data-driven. It will be
process-driven, with data playing a vital role. This paper defines and develops the DKMS
concept, lays out what is involved in an object-oriented approach to constructing a DKMS,
and discusses DKMS integration tools. The paper concludes with a discussion of the
differences between DKMS and data warehouse applications.
Object Modeling (White Paper No. Seven, April 30, 1998). An object modeling approach offers advantages in supporting Dimensional
Data Modeling (DDM) of data warehouses and data marts. The current approach to making the
basic decisions in producing a DDM is a pragmatic one. The pragmatic approach has had
considerable commercial success, but it still makes tight coupling of strategic goals and
objectives to the DDM result a matter of art, rather than a product of an explicit method
or procedure, results in a model composed of passive containers for data attributes,
rather than components that combine both data and behavior, does not place DDM within a
broader framework for integrating data and process -- that is, the pragmatic approach is
too data-centric, at a time when data warehousing is concerned with integrating a complex
diversity of server-based decision support system functions. This paper examines the
nature of DDM and DOM, develops the argument for tight coupling of strategic goals and
objectives to the DDM through an object modeling approach, and discusses the advantages of
the DOM approach in more detail.
Concepts of Knowledge Management (White Paper No. Nine, June 24, 1998). This
paper provides an introductory conceptual framework for knowledge management. It treats
the concepts of Knowledge Management System, Knowledge Base, Knowledge, Knowledge Process,
and Knowledge Management in the abstract. It then develops corresponding definitions at
the slightly lower level of abstraction of human organizations. Two approaches to
knowledge management are identified and characterized. The paper then concludes with a
discussion of some issues suggested by the framework.
Management Metrics Development: A Technical Approach (White Paper No. Ten,
June 25, 1998). This is one of a series of studies developing a Use Case approach to
Knowledge Management (KM). This paper is primarily focused on the problem of developing
measurement models for KM metrics in the context of a projected information systems
application fulfilling the "Perform Measurement Modeling Task"
within the "Perform Knowledge Discovery in Databases" use case.
In the course of this development a detailed specification of both the use case and
the task are provided. In specifying measurement modeling a number of techniques for
developing ratio-scaled measurement models applicable to KM metrics development are
described. These include techniques for developing rules that map: (1) categorical
variable (e.g., event or type) values onto a ratio scaled abstract metric; (2) frequencies
of an event occurrence onto a ratio scaled abstract metric; (3) multiple indicators into a
Evolution in Data Warehousing (White Paper No. Eleven, July 1, 1998). This
paper is concerned with DSS/data warehouse system architectural evolution in response to
the growing complexity of the enterprise DSS environment and with the relationship of new
architectures to a developing capability to handle the Dynamic Integration Problem. The
paper briefly describes and analyzes the following architectures: Top-Down; Bottom-Up;
Enterprise Data Mart (EDM); Data Stage/Data Mart (DS/DM); Distributed Data Warehouse/Data
Mart (DDW/DM); Distributed Knowledge Management (DKM); Variations with introduction of the
ODS. In addition it comments on the relationship between DKM architecture and data mining
and provides some brief comments on software tools for implementing DKMA.
Knowledge Management Modeling and Distributed Knowledge Management Systems
(White Paper, No. Twelve, January 3, 1998). A Distributed Knowledge Management System
(DKMS) of an enterprise is a specific type of Artificial Knowledge Management System
(AKMS) designed to support the enterprise's knowledge and knowledge management processes.
An Enterprise Knowledge Management (EKM) Model is a primary component of an enterprise's
knowledge base. The relationship of the DKMS to the EKM model is one of mutual feedback
and virtuous circularity over time. And it is also one of complexity and detail touching
on many aspects of both the EKM model and the DKMS. This paper examines this relationship
and articulates its many facets.
Defining the Enterprise
Information Portal (White Paper No. Thirteen, July 31, 1999). This White
Paper surveys the major definitions of Enterprise Information Portals offered by analysts,
vendors, and consultants, during the brief life of this newly introduced concept.
Beginning with the definition offered by Shilakes and Tylman in the Merrill Lynch Report
that arguably ignited a spark focusing industry attention on EIPs, the survey attempts to
create a road map of usage distinguishing the main types of portals and also to
distinguish sub-types within each portal category.
Accelerated Innovation and KM Impact
(White Paper No. Fourteen, December 21, 1999). While "first generation" or
"supply-side" knowledge management focused mainly on problems and concerns of
managing knowledge storage and distribution, some individuals in knowledge management have
recently championed the cause of "demand-side" knowledge processing. They argue
that knowledge management is broader than "supply-side" activities, and that,
moreover, the KM value proposition is greatly enhanced when we expand its focus to include
knowledge production activities, and in particular business innovation. This paper
develops a conceptual framework for analyzing the impact of KM on innovation. It defines
innovation, presents a knowledge life cycle model, relates KM and innovation to the model,
discusses the impact of KM on knowledge processes, cycle times, innovation rates and
relevance, and discusses KM metrics and interventions.
Enterprise Knowledge Portal Revisited (White Paper No. Fifteen, March 15,
2000). It's been a year since the concept of The Enterprise Knowledge Portal was defined
in DKMS Brief No. Eight. That year has seen little explicit attention given to EKPs. A
recent article in DM Review by Jeff Grammer called "The Enterprise Knowledge
Portal," presents a new attempt to define and characterize the EKP. While the attempt
has much to recommend it, in the end it doesn't precisely define the EKP or provide a
comprehensive characterization of it. In this White Paper the alternative view of the EKP
presented in the earlier DKMS Brief is expanded and developed further through a
detailed commentary on Grammer's article.
Knowledge Portals and eBusiness Solutions (White Paper No. Sixteen, October
1, 2000). Portal technology is currently in full migration to the field of e-business.
Enterprise Information Portal (EIP) technology is equally applicable to internally-facing,
trading communities, trans-enterprise and externally-facing enterprise applications of all
types. Eventually when true Enterprise Knowledge Portal (EKP) products and solutions are
implemented, they too will be used in e-business. Especially in trading communities, and
in communities of practice in medicine, pharmacology, architecture, engineering, science
more generally, and in other areas where the distinction between true and false
information is central. This paper looks at the EKP from the e-Business perspective. It
examines: Relations among business processes, knowledge processes, and eBusiness
processes; The Knowledge Life Cycle Model;The Nature of KM; The EKP; EKP architecture; and
eBusiness Knowledge Portals and eBusiness Solutions.
Management: A Framework for Analysis and Measurement (White Paper No.
Seventeen, October 1, 2000). Knowledge Management (KM) is a field in ferment and disorder.
In any such field a first order of business is developing a conceptual framework to serve
as a map for problem definition, analysis, measurement, impact analysis, software
applications development and research of various kinds. KM is no exception. This paper
offers such a conceptual framework. It provides basic KM-related concepts, a business
process decision model, a knowledge life cycle model, a KM framework, and a detailed
listing of descriptors and metrical concepts associated with the main categories of the
Knowledge Portals: What They Are and What They Do (Reprinted from Knowledge
and Innovation: Journal of the KMCI 1, no. 1 (2000) 85-108). The Enterprise Knowledge
Portal is an application on the verge of development. The benefits associated with the EKP
are nothing less than realization of the promise of the EIP to achieve increased ROI,
competitive advantage, increased effectiveness, and acceleration of innovation. This paper
analyzes the roots of the EKP in a knowledge processing/KM framework and then develops its
Management Process Methodology: An Overview (Reprinted from Knowledge and
Innovation: Journal of the KMCI 1, no. 2 (2001) 54-90). Insofar as KM Methodology is treated at
all, it is frequently viewes as a full Life Cycle Methodology. This paper assesses full
life cycle versus iterative/incremental methodologies in KM and proposes a new methodology
that is task pattern-driven, business structure-centric, and iterative and incremental.
The methodology decouples project phases from work flows and manages risk in developing KM
solutions. It provides a place for process tools and IT tools. It incorporates conceptual
frameworks such as the KMCI's knowledge Life cycle (KLC) and Metaprise models. It also
provides methods for measuring the balance of benefits to costs resulting from KM
solutions, as well as methods for developing KM metrics.
Benefits of Knowledge Management Initiatives (Reprinted from Knowledge
and Innovation: Journal of the KMCI 1, no. 3 (2001)). This paper presents concepts,
methodology and tools for producing improved KM benefit estimates. It provides a framework
for thinking about more comprehensive estimation of KM benefits -- estimation that is
tightly coupled to corporate goals, and that distinguishes benefits according to their
relative importance. Instead of a single methodology, the paper defines an abstract
pattern of Comprehensive Benefit Estimation (CBE) that achieves the goal of tight
coupling of benefits, goals, and KM initiatives and competing alternatives. The paper ends
by specifying how one may tailor the pattern to achieve a feasible estimation procedure in
different concrete situations.
Issues in Knowledge Management (Reprinted from Knowledge and Innovation:
Journal of the KMCI 1, no. 3 (2001) 8-38). This is an article about key issues in
Knowledge Management (KM). It is one person's view about some of the main issues dividing
practitioners about how to pursue KM, comprehend it, and eventually realize its
value. The issues covered include: Approach to KM, What is Knowledge? What is
Knowledge Management? Hierarchical VS. Organic KM, Knowledge Management and Data
Management, Knowledge Management and Information Management, KM and Culture.
of Knowledge Management (co-authored with Mark W. McElroy, Jul 1, 2002). This
article is a detailed consideration of three theories of
change in KM including Mark Koenig's, David Snowden's and Mark McElroy's. The paper also
provides an analysis of Snowden's Cynefin framework and considers the following questions.
Which of the three views is correct? Are there two generations, stages or ages of KM? Is a
third age about to begin? Or are there already three? Are the changes best seen as
occurring along the information technology dimension? Or along linguistic dimensions such
as taxonomy construction, context, and narrative? Or in terms of whether we view
organizations as mechanisms, or Complex Adaptive Systems (CASs), or CASs modified by human
Promethean interventions? Or just in terms of the popularity of different intervention
types from one period to another? Or is change in KM best viewed as occurring in terms of
the shifting focus of management on the scope of knowledge processing as identified by
Management Consortium (KMC) Working Papers
Artificial Knowledge Manager Standard: A "Straw Man" (Working Paper
No. One, January 25, 1999).An enterprise Artificial Knowledge Management System (AKMS) is
an enterprise wide conceptually distinct integrated component produced by its Natural
Knowledge Management System (NKMS). The AKMS is designed to manage the integration of
computer hardware, software, and networking objects/components into a functioning whole,
supporting enterprise knowledge production, acquisition, and transmission processes. The
AKMS supports producing, acquiring, and communicating the enterprise's knowledge base.
This Working Paper presents a conceptual model of the AKMS and of its key integrative
component, the Artificial Knowledge Manager (AKM). It is intended as a "straw
man" to help the Artificial Knowledge Management Systems Committee of the KMC begin
work and focus its deliberation on an AKM standard.
Base Management Systems and The Knowledge Warehouse: A "Strawman"
(Working Paper No. Two, January 25, 1999).The concepts of Knowledge Base Management System
(KBMS) and the Knowledge Warehouse (KW) are analogues of Database Management System (DBMS)
and Data Warehouse. To arrive at a standard practice on the KBMS, and a standard
definition of the Knowledge Warehouse, it is reasonable to begin with "straw
man" definitions of both these concepts, next develop a general concept of what a
standard practice might encompass, and then subject these products to vigorous criticism
and analysis. The purpose of this paper is to produce this straw man. The paper presents
some basic distinctions among data, information and knowledge, then discusses DBMSs, the
DW, DW evolution, and Data Warehousing as a process, and then moves from there to develop
the analogous concepts in the knowledge and knowledge management spheres.
The Metaprise, the AKMS, and the
Enterprise Knowledge Portal (Working Paper No. Three, May 5, 1999).This is a
paper about four terms: The Metaprise, the Artficial Knowledge Management System (AKMS),
the Enterprise Information Portal (EIP), and the Enterprise Knowledge Portal (EKP). The
Metaprise is short-hand for the 21st Century knowledge-managed, knowledge innovating
organization, The AKMS is the name of a comprehensive type of IT application supporting
KM. It is at the foundation of the KMCs AKMS Standards Sub-Committee. EIP is a new
software application and investment space identified by Merrill Lynch. And the EKP is a
type of EIP segmenting that space. This paper lays out relationships among these terms and
develops a concept map including all of them. The map shows the convergence of terminology
on a new and, I hope, powerful construct: the Metaprise as the knowledge-managing,
knowledge-innovating organization of the 21st Century supported by an Enterprise Knowledge
Portal system as its central AKMS application.
Information Factory or the Corporate Knowledge Factory? (DKMS Brief
No. One, July 10, 1998). Bill Inmon has introduced the Corporate Information
Factory. But should he have introduced the Corporate Knowledge Factory? Does it really
make any difference?
META Group and the Future of Knowledge Management (DKMS Brief No. Two, July
15, 1998). Here's a commentary on some important questions suggested by a recent META
Group Prophecy. Will KM be a discrete (product/service) entity after 2001? Are there only
a few companies integrating KM into their consulting fabric? Should users avoid generic KM
service offerings? What's the real future of KM product/service offerings?
Agents in Distributed Knowledge Management Systems (DKMS Brief No. Three,
July 30, 1998). Software agents are among the most significant technical developments in
IT today. This brief provides a view of how agents fit into the DKMS picture. It concludes
that agents can be vital in solving object and component state and change management, and
in solving the Dynamic Integration Problem. In addition, agents can make a wide range of
contributions in supporting various aspects of the use cases and associated work flows
comprising the DKMS.
Process Engines in Distributed Knowledge Management Systems (DKMS Brief No.
Four, August 28, 1998). John Rymer, in a White Paper written for Persistence Corp.
recently defined "a new category of application server software" called the
Business Process Engine (BPE). "Business Process Engines manage the most important
business state both in a fast in-memory environment and in close coordination with
back-end databases." In addition, they specialize in complex business rule
processing, because their ability to maintain state is a special advantage in performing
such processing. This brief develops the business process engine concept and relates it to
Distributed Knowledge Management Systems.
Information Portals and Enterprise Knowledge Portals (DKMS Brief No. Eight,
March 20, 1999). In November of 1998, a new "investment space" called Enterprise
Information Portals (EIPs), was declared by Merrill Lynch. This Brief summarizes
the definition, characteristics and benefits of EIPs, examines how they differ from Data
Warehousing Systems, defines and characterizes Enterprise Knowledge Portals (EKPs) and
contrasts them with EIPs, the DKMS and the AKMS, and comments on the future of EKPs.
Integration, Data Federation, and The DKMS: A Commentary (DKMS Brief No.
Nine, May 3, 1999). This brief examines Stonebrakers views on enterprise integration
and on the superiority of the federated data integration approach to alternatives such as
Enterprise Application Integration (EAI). It argues that his analysis of EAI is restricted
in scope and that his conceptual framework excludes the information integration, and
knowledge integration approaches to enterprise artificial systems integration. The DKMS is
presented as an alternative form of logical integration encompassing application
integration, information integration, and knowledge integration, and providing a solution
to the "islands of information" problem. Lastly, the DKMS and federated data
integration approaches are contrasted in the context of recent developments in the areas
of Enterprise Information Portals and Enterprise Knowledge Portals.
of Enterprise Information Portals and Corporate Goals (DKMS Brief No. Ten,
July 31, 1999). The introduction of the Enterprise Information Portal (EIP) is no
different from other waves of IT innovation in the rapidity of progression of the
technology adoption cycle through the ranks of "innovators" and "early
adopters." The benefits of EIPs are already being widely claimed, even though the EIP
wave has hardly touched the "pragmatist" shore. How justifiable are these claims
of EIP benefits in relation to corporate goals? That is the question answered in this
brief. This brief is an excerpt from a longer forthcoming report (available for purchase
from EIS) entitled "Approaching Enterprise Information Portals."
Evolution in Data Warehousing (September 9, 1998)
Knowledge Management Systems and Enterprise Knowledge Management Modeling
(October 15, 1998)
4: Standard on the Artificial Knowledge Manager (January 29, 1999)
5: Standard Recommended Practice On Artificial Knowledge Base Management Systems
(January 29, 1999)
Artificial Knowledge Manager and The Distributed Knowledge Management System
(February 10, 1999)
Information Portals: The Next ERP? (September 30, 1999)
Innovation and KM Impact (December 6, 1999)
At the Cutting Edge of KM: The
Metaprise, the AKMS, and the Enterprise Knowledge Portal (December 6, 1999)
The Enterprise Knowledge Portal: the
Concept (January, 2000)
Knowledge Portals: What They Are, and What They Do (May 23, 2000)
and Distinguishing Corporate Portals (January 23, 2001)
Knowledge Portals in e-Business (February 20, 2001)
Solutions: Assessing the State of the Art (November 13, 2000)
and KM (April, 2001)
Vision of Knowledge Management II (October 8, 2001)
Management and the Terrorism Crisis (November 20, 2001)
Portal Progress and Knowledge Management
(March 20, 2002)
Management and Quality Management (June 10, 2002)
of the Knowledge Life Cycle (June 27, 2002)
Management: Three Stages or Two Generations? (September 17, 2002)
Is Knowledge Management IT?
(October, 22, 2002)
Picking Portal Players for Knowledge
Management (October 30, 2002)
Portal Progress and Enterprise Content
Management (January 9, 2003)